History of the Assyrian people -

The Neo-Assyrian Empire is best understood in continuity with its forebears in the Middle Assyrian period The Neo-Assyrian kings considered themselves part of an unbroken line of kings stretching as far back as BC. Neo-Assyrian expansion relied upon an ideology of regaining Assyrian territory rather than one of conquest initially.

The rise of Assyrian power was in large part due to the vision and ambition of several vicious warrior kings. The great Assyrian kings of the ancient world were worshipped by loyal subjects and feared by enemies.

You will meet all the Assyrian kings who left an incredible mark behind and have been remembered for centuries. Take a journey back in time to ancient Mesopotamia to find out how the Assyrian civilization grew from a wealthy city-state to the largest empire known to man in the ancient world.

Cities such as Ashur, Nineveh, and Nimrud were some of the most spectacular to behold with ziggurats soaring to the heavens. The architectural, literary, and scientific contributions by this breathtaking civilization rival other famous groups from this time period in history.

Find out what artifacts were unearthed and more to gain incredible insight into the rise and fall of this massive empire.

Assyrian Empire - National Geographic Society

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Community Reviews. Showing Average rating 3. Rating details. Assyria continued to expand west, invading Egypt during the rule of Esarhaddon reign ca. The Egyptian pharaoh Taharqa was defeated in B. The Assyrians then tried to govern Egypt using a series of vassal rulers. While the Assyrians had pushed far to the west trouble was brewing in the east. During the 7 th century B. Assyrian rulers had to put down a series of rebellions in Babylonia.

Meanwhile a group called the "Medes," based in what is now Iran, also launched attacks on Assyrian forces. Under attack from two groups, while trying to maintain their holdings in the west, the Assyrian military came under pressure. The Babylonians became fully independent during the reign of the Babylonian King Nabopolassar reign ca. In B.

The Assyrian Empire: Culture, Rise & Fall

A Babylonian inscription said that the fight for Nineveh went on for a few months. The city fell and was destroyed by the Median army who turned the city "into ruin hills and heaps of debris," translation by CJ Gadd. The Assyrians fought further battles but their military was gradually drained and their territory destroyed or taken over. It's not clear if Sinsharishkun died at Nineveh or sometime later in a future battle.

By B. The Church of the East went through major consolidation and expansion in during the Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphonheld at the Sasanian capital in Asorestan. Selucia-Ctesiphon remained a location of the Patriarchate of the Church of the East for over years. This period of Sassanid hegemony lasted till the advent of the invading Rashidun Arabs between and AD after which Assuristan got annexed by the Islamic Arabs.

A century later, the area became the capital province of the Abbasid Caliphate and the center of Islamic civilization for five hundred years; from the 8th to the 13th centuries.

The previously basic civilization of the desert-dwelling Arabs was greatly enhanced and enriched by the influence and knowledge of native Mesopotamian scientists, physicians, mathematicians, theologians, astronomers, architects, agriculturalists, artists, and astrologers. Assyrian Christians especially Nestorian contributed to the Arab Islamic Civilization during the Ummayads and the Abbasids by translating works of Greek philosophers to Syriac and afterwards to Arabic. However, despite this, indigenous Assyrians became second class citizens in a greater Arab Islamic state, and those who resisted Arabisation and conversion to Islam were subject to religious, ethnic and cultural discrimination, and had certain restrictions imposed upon them.

The Arabs still recognised Assyrian identity in the Medieval period, describing them as Ashuriyun. Assyrian people, still retaining Akkadian infused and influenced Eastern Aramaic and Assyrian Church of the East Christianityremained dominant in the north of Mesopotamia what had been Assyria as late as the 14th century AD [22] and the city of Assur was still occupied by Assyrians during the Islamic period until the midth century when the Muslim Turco-Mongol ruler Tamurlane conducted a religiously-motivated massacre of indigenous Assyrian Christians.

After that, there are no traces of a settlement at Ashur in the archaeological and numismatic record, and from this point, argumentative essay on human trafficking Assyrian population was dramatically reduced in their homeland.

A religious schism among the Assyrians of northern Mesopotamia emerged in the 16th and 17th centuries AD, when a large number of hitherto Assyrian Church of the East Assyrians from the far north of Mesopotamia entered communion with the Roman Catholic Church after becoming dissatisfied with the Abuna family's leadership of the Assyrian Church, and after at first failing to gain acceptance within the Syriac Orthodox Church.

However, in AD, Rome altered the name to the Chaldean Catholic Churchthis group of Assyrians eventually became known as Chaldean Catholics or Chaldo-Assyrians despite having no ethnic, historical, linguistic or geographic connections whatsoever to the long-extinct Chaldean q29264 acupuncture% 3a the history and practice of the holistic ancient chinese medicine essay of southeast Mesopotamia.

Starting from the 19th century after the rise of nationalism in the Balkansthe Ottomans started viewing Assyrians and other Christians in their eastern front as a potential threat. Furthermore, constant wars between The Ottomans and the Shiite Safavids encouraged the Ottomans into settling their allies, the nomadic Sunni Kurdsin what is today Northern Iraq and South-eastern Turkey. The Kurdish Emirs sought to consolidate their power by attacking Assyrian communities which were already well established there.

Scholars estimate that tens of thousands of Assyrian in the Hakkari region were massacred in when Badr Khan the emir of Bohtan invaded their region. The Assyrians of Amid were also subject to the massacres of The Assyrians suffered a further catastrophic series of massacres known as the Assyrian Genocideat the hands of the Ottomans and their Kurdish and Arab allies from The genocide committed in conjunction with the Armenian Genocide and Greek Genocide accounted for up tounarmed Assyrian civilians and the forced deportations of many more.

The sizable Assyrian presence in southeastern Asia Minor which had endured for over four millennia was reduced to a few thousand. As a consequence, the surviving Assyrians took up arms, and an Assyrian war of independence was fought during World War IFor a time, the Assyrians fought successfully against overwhelming numbers, scoring a number of history of the first pc cd burner over the Ottomans and Kurds, and also hostile Arab and Iranian groups; then their Russian allies left the war following the Russian Revolutionand Armenian resistance broke.

Ancient Mesopotamia: Assyrian Empire

The Assyrians were left cut off, surrounded, and without supplies, forcing those in Asia Minor and Northwest Iran to fight their way, with civilians in tow, to the safety of British lines and q29264 acupuncture% 3a the history and practice of the holistic ancient chinese medicine essay fellow Assyrians in the Assyrian homeland of northern Iraq.

Assyrians prominently served in Iraq Levies organized by the British inand afterthese became the Assyrian Levies. Many Assyrians from Hakkari settled in Syria after they were displaced and driven out by Ottoman Turks in southeast Turkey in the early 20th century.

InAssyrians refused to become part of the newly formed state of Iraq and instead demanded their recognition as a nation within a nation. The Assyrians suffered the Simele Massacrewhere thousands of unarmed villagers men, women, and children were slaughtered by joint Arab-Kurdish forces of the Iraqi Army.

These massacres followed a clash between Assyrian tribesmen and the Iraqi army, where the Iraqi forces suffered a defeat after trying to disarm the Assyrians, whom they feared would attempt to secede from Iraq. Armed Assyrian Levies were prevented by the British from going to the aid of these defenseless civilians.

Q29264 acupuncture% 3a the history and practice of the holistic ancient chinese medicine essay

The Assyrian Levies were founded by the British inwith ancient Assyrian military rankings, such as Rab-shakehRab-talia and Tartan, being revived for the first time in millennia for this force.

The Assyrians were prized by the British rulers for their fighting qualities, loyalty, bravery and discipline, and were used to help the British put down insurrections among the Arabs and Kurds, guard the borders with Iran and Turkey and protect British military installations.

The British presence in Iraq lasted untiland Assyrian Levies remained attached to British forces until this time. The period from the s through to saw a period of respite for the Assyrians.

The regime of President Kassim, in particular, saw the Assyrians accepted into mainstream society. Many urban Assyrians became successful businessmen, others were well represented in politics and the military, their towns and villages flourished undisturbed, and Assyrians came to excel, and be over-represented in sports such as Boxing, Football, Athletics, Wrestling and Swimming.

Yogurt was a main part of the Assyrians diet. Assyrians had two main desserts. One is a pastry filled with a buttery paste. This is called Kadee. The other dessert is called Baklava. Baklava is a dessert found in many other middle eastern civilizations. Richta, an Assyrian rice dish is tasty.

Booshala is a creamy soup with many delicious ingredients one of which is ground lamb. The men wore long coatlike garments and were bearded. Women wore a sleeved tunic and a shawl over their shoulders. History of the assyrian empire and full-length tunics a garment like a shirt with short sleeves were the most common types of clothing worn.

They were worn along with some type headdress. Shawls were also worn. The two were generally worn together, but sometimes not. The Assyrian cavalry was well outfitted for war, with chain mail and leather boots. Chainmail is a type of armor consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh. While other armies fought in sandals, leather boots protected Assyrian soldiers while they were around horses, and prepared the Assyrian army to fight in rough terrain and in cold weather, rain, and snow.

Though there are no actual pieces of clothing around today, archeologists can still infer with some help from the Old Testament of the Bible that rich coloring was prominent. Colors probably included:. Assyrian writing was called cuneiform kU-nee-u-form.

The cuneiform is one of the oldest known forms of writing. Cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs.Get answers from your peers along with millions of IT pros who visit Spiceworks. Best Answer. Popular Topics in Windows 7. Spiceworks Help Desk. Home Dictionary C - Definitions. Disc drive overview. Blu-ray Burner. Blu-ray DVD Burner. CD Burner. Combo Drive. DVD Burner. DVD Duplicator. Slim Combo Drive.

Slim DVD Burner. Show More Apply. USB 2. Home Reviews. Any ideas other than trying to install a new one. This thread is locked. You can follow the question or vote as helpful, but you cannot reply to this thread. Or any combination of these, as the CD-i titles showed. Picture quality was also excellent, thanks to digital video with more than 16 million colors.

CD-i was not just promoted by Philips; shortly after the introduction some companies around the world were involved: product developers, studios, publishers, player manufacturers, TV producers, advertising and PR agencies and many more.

Video CD. In Panasonic announced its intention to introduce Video CD players, while Sony said it intended to launch Video CDs for professional and educational applications in Traditional single layer SL writable media are produced with a spiral groove molded in the protective polycarbonate layer not in the data recording layerto lead and synchronize the speed of recording head. Double-layered writable media have: a first polycarbonate layer with a shallow groove, a first data layer, a semi-reflective layer, a second spacer polycarbonate layer with another deep groove, and a history of the first pc cd burner data layer.

The first groove spiral usually starts on the inner edge and extends outwards, while the second groove starts on the outer edge and history of the first pc cd burner inwards. Some drives support Hewlett-Packard 's LightScribe photothermal printing technology for labeling specially coated discs. The rotational mechanism in an optical drive differs considerably from that of a hard disk drive's, in that the latter keeps a constant angular velocity CAVin other words a constant number of revolutions per minute RPM.

With CAV, a higher throughput is generally achievable at the outer disc compared to the inner. It was a feature important for streaming audio data that always tend to require a constant bit rate. But to ensure no disc capacity was wasted, a head had to transfer data at a maximum linear rate at all times too, without slowing on history of the first pc cd burner outer rim of disc.

This led to optical drives-until recently-operating with a constant linear velocity CLV. The spiral groove of the disc passed under its head at a constant speed.

Later CD drives kept the CLV paradigm, but evolved to achieve higher rotational speeds, popularly described in multiples of a base speed. For Blu-ray drives, base speed is 6. Because keeping a constant transfer rate for the whole disc is not so important in most contemporary CD uses, a pure CLV approach had to be abandoned to keep the rotational speed of the disc safely low while maximizing data rate.

But switching to CAV requires considerable changes in hardware design, so instead most drives use the zoned constant linear velocity Z-CLV scheme. This divides the disc into several zones, each having its own constant linear velocity. Without higher rotational speeds, increased read performance may be attainable by simultaneously reading more marijuana essays one point of a data groove, [18] but drives with such mechanisms are more expensive, less compatible, and very uncommon.

Current optical drives use either a tray-loading mechanism, where the disc is loaded onto a motorized or manually operated tray, or a slot-loading mechanism, where the disc is slid into a slot and drawn in by motorized rollers. With both types of mechanisms, if a CD or DVD is left in the drive after the computer is turned off, the disc cannot be ejected using the normal eject mechanism of the drive. However, tray-loading drives account for this situation by providing a small hole where one can insert a straightened paperclip to manually open the drive tray to retrieve the disc.

A small number of drive models, mostly compact portable units, have a top-loading mechanism where the drive lid is opened upwards and the disc is placed directly onto the spindle [23] for example, all PlayStation One consoles, most portable CD players, and some standalone CD recorders feature top-loading drives. These sometimes have the advantage of using spring-loaded ball bearings to hold the disc in place, minimizing damage to the disc if the drive is moved while it is spun up.

History of the first pc cd burner

Some early CD-ROM drives used a mechanism where CDs had to be inserted into special cartridges or caddiessomewhat similar in appearance to a 3. This was intended to protect the disc from accidental damage by enclosing it in a tougher plastic casing, but did not gain wide acceptance due to the additional cost and compatibility concerns-such drives would also inconveniently require "bare" discs to be manually inserted into an openable caddy before use.

There were also some early CD-ROM drives for desktop PCs in which its tray-loading mechanism will eject slightly and user has to pull out the tray manually to load CD, similar to the tray ejecting method used in internal optical disc drives of modern laptops and modern external slim portable optical disc drives. Like the top-loading mechanism, they have spring-loaded ball bearings on the spindle.

Most internal drives for personal computersserversand workstations are designed to fit in a standard 5.